Winters' formula
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EditorInChief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]
Overview
Winters' formula is a formula to assess the adequacy of respiratory compensation in the presence of a primary metabolic acidosis.
Historical Perspective
Winters' formula, named after Robert W. Winters,^{[1]}^{[2]} is a formula used to evaluate respiratory compensation when analyzing acidbase disorders and a metabolic acidosis is present.^{[3]}^{[4]}
Winters' formula
Winters' formula can be given as
P_{CO2} = 1.5 x [HCO_{3}^{}] + 8 ± 2 
where HCO3^{} is given in units of mEq/L and P_{CO2} will be in units of mm Hg.
Interpretation
Winters' formula gives an expected value for the patient's P_{CO2}; the patient's measured P_{CO2} is then compared to this.
 If the two values correspond, respiratory compensation is considered to be adequate.
 If the measured P_{CO2} is higher than the calculated value, there is also a primary respiratory acidosis.
 If the measured P_{CO2} is lower than the calculated value, there is also a primary respiratory alkalosis.
References
 ↑ Albert MS, Dell RB, Winters RW (1967). "Quantitative displacement of acidbase equilibrium in metabolic acidosis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 66 (2): 312–22. PMID 6016545. Unknown parameter
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ignored (help)  ↑ Asch MJ, Dell RB, Williams GS, Cohen M, Winters RW (1969). "Time course for development of respiratory compensation in metabolic acidosis". The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 73 (4): 610–5. PMID 5775132. Unknown parameter
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ignored (help)  ↑ "Case 1: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center".
 ↑ "AcidBase Disorders: AcidBase Regulation and Disorders: Merck Manual Professional".